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Shin splints are an extremely common ailment in runners. Other common names are soleus syndrome  and tibial periostitis, but the proper medical terminology is medial tibial stress syndrome. As this name suggests, this condition involves overload (stress) of the medial (inner border) part of the tibia (shin bone).
This overuse condition is usually associated with abrupt changes in training routines. The bone  experiences increased stresses and begins to remodel to adapt to this environment but often needs more time to adapt than the runner allows.
Runners with suspected shin splints should seek an evaluation by a sports medicine professional to rule out other diagnoses such as a stress fracture, posterior tibial tendon disease, and exercise-induced  exertional compartment syndrome.
The diagnosis is typically made by physical examination, with tenderness along the inside area of the leg. Plain X-rays usually do not show any changes. Advanced imaging, such as bone scan and MRI can sometimes be performed and help confirm the diagnosis, but is usually not necessary.
The mainstay of treatment is rest (or a change in training, such as cross training) to allow the tibial bone to heal. Other treatments that may help include:

However, there is no clear evidence that any of these have significant benefit besides rest. To help avoid  shin splints, runners should be vigilant in allowing adequate time to increase training demands, as well as run in a properly-fitted, well-cushioned running shoe. So, keep on running and don’t let your shins slow you down..

Knee joint pain due to arthritis or any other disease or infection is treated along with the major problem while knee joint pain due to any injury can be treated by hot and cold compresses, massages with warm oil, light exercises like walking and cycling, yoga and aerobics. Knee replacement surgery is the last option to treat a completely immobile and painful knee.
Knee joint is the junction of two large bones of leg in which pain can be caused due to many reasons. The exact location of the pain helps medical experts to diagnose the problem better and quickly for treatment. Like any other joint of the body knee too is prone to the injuries, infections and disorders, in fact in older people complaints for knee pain is more common than compared to any other joint of the body.
The knee joint is formed by two bones femur and tibia supported by four ligaments and a patella also popularly known as knee cap. This whole joint is covered by synovium and is filled with synovial fluid which provides nourishment to the cartilages and keeps them elastic. Synovial fluid inside synovium also keeps cartilages smooth and slippery to ensure friction free and pain free movement of the knee. The knee joint joins thigh and shin bones to make normal activity like walking possible. This joint can bend up to 135 degrees and extend to 0 degrees. It is a weight bearing joint and complex in design which makes it most commonly injured joint of the body.
Injuries can promote pain in the knee. Any traumatic event can cause damage to ligaments attached to the knee joint. As knee has four ligaments attached to it exact area of pain can help the doctor to find out the particular ligament that has been damaged. Pain occurs when weight is transferred on the joint. Swelling of tendons also referred as tendinitis or jumper’s knee, injuries caused to meniscus by sharp and quick movements can cause mild to severe pain in the knee joint. The pain due to tearing of meniscus is felt with a popping sensation and locking or feeling of unstable knee. Swelling of tendons causes pain below the knee cap or at the back of the knee joint. All of these knee pains may also occur due to old age or overuse of the knee joint like in sports and other activities.
Osteoarthritis and rheumatic arthritis are other common causes of pain in the knees. Osteoarthritis causes damage to cartilages which eventually exposes ends of the bones to rub each other to cause severe pain and inflammation and also can cause complete immobility of the joint. Rheumatic arthritis makes immunity system attack its own healthy tissues which causes damage to the tissues present in the knee joint causing inflammation, redness, pain and infection in the synovial fluid. Arthritis also promotes secretion of fluid in the joint which gets accumulated in the form of a cyst at the back of the knee joint also known as baker’s cyst.
Knee joint pain due to arthritis or any other disease, infection or disorder is treated along with the major problem while joint pain in the knee due to any injury can be treated by hot and cold compresses, massages with warm oil or pain relieving ointments and creams, light exercises like walking and cycling , yoga and aerobics. Knee replacement surgery is the last option medically available to treat a completely immobile and painful knee..

With the rising obesity rate in the United States, many health care providers advocate exercise for their patients. Often included in this program is a prescription for weight or “strength” training to help strengthen muscles and prevent injury. Concerns are often raised, however, on whether strength training is appropriate and safe for kids. Recent research has shown that the potential benefits of youth strength training extends beyond a simple increase in muscular strength and may include other improvements such as endurance, bone mineral density, coordination and motor performance skills.

Earlier concerns regarding youth weight training focused primarily around the risk for potential injuries and the fear of premature growth plate closure. However, recent data indicates that a supervised weight training program can be safely administered to children as young as six years old without risk of growth plate or musculoskeletal injury. In 2009, the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) made recommendations that included 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity participation for school-aged youth. In addition to aerobic activity, the NSCA stated that, “research increasingly indicates that resistance training can offer unique benefits for children and adolescents when appropriately prescribed and supervised.”

Preventing injury and proper form is critical to maximizing strength training benefits in young children. Many past injury concerns with youth strength training revolved around the use of inappropriate weights, poor form and inadequate rest between exercise bouts.

Current guidelines recommend:
• Using weight machines and not free weights
• Proper stretching and warm-up prior to each training session
• Each strength training session be supervised by an adult
• Use of a circuit machine that works the major body parts should be performed only two to three times per week with at least one day of rest in between
• Ensuring correct form is used during each exercise, with approximately 12–15 repetitions performed
• No quick movements or jerking exercises, but rather smooth repetitions
• Strengthening the chest, shoulders, arms, legs and calves with one to two sets for each muscle group is sufficient for each training session.

Strength training is beneficial for children on many levels and should include high repetitions, low weights, pre-training stretching and be performed no more than three times per week. If these strict guidelines are followed, substantial gains in muscular strength and fitness-related measures can be expected..